Abstract: Surface cleaning using commercial disinfectants, which has recently increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, can generate secondary indoor pollutants both in gas and aerosol phases. It can also affect indoor air quality and health, especially for workers repeatedly exposed to disinfectants. Here, we cleaned the floor of a mechanically ventilated office room using a commercial cleaner while concurrently measuring gas-phase precursors, oxidants, radicals, secondary oxidation products, and aerosols in real-time; these were detected within minutes after cleaner application. During cleaning, indoor monoterpene concentrations exceeded outdoor concentrations by two orders of magnitude, increasing the rate of ozonolysis under low (<10 ppb) ozone levels. High number concentrations of freshly nucleated sub–10-nm particles (≥105 cm−3) resulted in respiratory tract deposited dose rates comparable to or exceeding that of inhalation of vehicle-associated aerosols.